Urban Economics

2- how can the pricing can be difined ?

and  What are the basic considiration relating to distance or duration?

–          Walk to public transportation                         -Wiat for vehicle     -Board vehicle

–          Vehicle accelerates to steady speed  *         -Vehicle runs at steady speed *

–          Vehicle decelerates to stop    *                       -Intermediate stop *

–          Alight from vehicle   *                                       -Walk to destination *

( * Cycle related for each stop )

These are the total time for one way door to door trip comprises.

The line-haul part of the trip is that which takes place on major public transportation model used.

For a given set of speeds, acceleration rates and trip lengths, the expression thus derived can be simplified to contain  only one unknown quantity , the average stop spacing. If this the stop spacing is small, total trip time would be so high and if it is so wide,  feeder trip times would lengthen.


–          İf acceleration or retardation rates are increased, optimal stop spacing will narrow

–          İf steady running speed attained after acceleration increases, optimal spacing will widen

–          İf the speed od feeder mode is increased, optimal spacing will widen

–          İf stop dwell time is reduced, optimal spacing will narrow




Acess distance to network

For urban bus services, a typical upper limit of about 500 metres maybe taken. Normally about 95 per cent of the urban population is within this distance of nearest stop.


A walking distance to a bus stop of about 500 metres also from theorical studies as part Runcorn Newtown master plan. It corresponds to about 5 munites walk for average adult, but can take up to twice as long for someone with a pushchair or olderperson. Passengers will also tend to walk to stop in right direction of travel, and not necessarily the closest one.

After all, it might be the reasult that different network densities appropriate for different types of pessenger. Peak school and work journey  can be handled on fairly widely spaced routes largely on main roads, offering high frequency or using large vehicles. At off-peak hours people may be much more sensitive to walking distance.


The economic rule for price setting that price should be equal to marginal cost. The cost of the marginal unit is just equal to what some purchaser is willing to pay.


MC: Marginal Cost   AC: average cost  D: demand

In normal stuation ( 15-1), the demand  curve intersects the marginal cost curve at an output where the average cost.

MC: Marginal Cost   AC: average cost  D: demand

However  a stuation can arise in which the demand curve crosses the marginal cost curve at an output where the average cost decreasing, and the marginal cost is lower than average cost.


  • Another way is price discrimination, in ehich different prices are chatged to different buyers. It is necessary t segregate consurmers into identifable groups that differ in their willing to pay for a product.
  • Distance-based fares; It seems logical  that who are travel longer distance  should pay higher fares beacuse it costs more to carry them.
  • Peak period pricing; Demand for some products is distributed unevenly through time. There can be large  variations by season, day of week or time of day. When the demand is much higher in peak periods, producers must to pay much more.
  • Free Transit; There has long been some sentiment that transit services should be free. Local goverments provide many free services such as schools, libraries, police and fire protection.

2)what are the bus routing schemes


–          The firs pattern consist of in one corridor in one segment of a city are shown figure 12.1. the first pattern consist of a large set of bus converging on an arterial of freeway toward city.This network, typical for commuter transit, serves many to oneradial trips efficently,  but it does not allow for any convenient transver otr trips among different points along same corridor.

–          The second pattern consist of truck line usually upgraded to rail technology with high performance and tranfer station with numerous bus feeders.

–          The third one is the highest type of network.It shows two radial corridors with rail lines that are connected by circumferentialrail line and served by several timed transfer stations.