KENTSEL MEKANDA ÜÇLÜ iTTiFAK: SANAYiSiZLESME, SOYLULASTIRMA, YENi ORTA SINIF

KENTSEL MEKANDA ÜÇLÜ iTTiFAK: SANAYiSiZLESME, SOYLULASTIRMA, YENi ORTA SINIF

Özet
Bu makalede sanayisizlesme, soylulastırma ve yeni orta sınıf arasındaki iliskinin ekonomi
politik boyutları irdelenmektedir. Sınıf içi artan bölünmelerin kentsel ve siyasal hayattaki
karsılıkları sanayisizlesme ve soylulastırma açısından ele alındı. 1990 sonrası kent
merkezlerinde gündeme gelen soylulastırma, sanayisizlesme sonrası bosalan veya gerileyen
kentsel alanlarda yeni bir ekonomik arayıs yarattı. Yasanan ekonomik değer artısı sınıfsal
tahliyeye dönüserek isçi sınıfının kentteki tarihine ve genel olarak yoksulluk hallerine yönelik
“dıslayıcı” bir yaklasım yaratmıstır. Bütün bu gelismeler isçi sınıfının gözden düsüsü ve
“hırçın” bir yeni orta sınıf söyleminin yanı sıra diğer kent elitlerinin kazanımlarını arttırma
yönündeki kent tasavvurunu hakim kılmıstır.

Triadic Deal on Urban Space: De-industrialization, Gentrification, New Middle Class
Abstract
This article focuses on the economic and political dimensions of the relations between deindustrialization,
gentrification and the new middle class in Turkey. The urban and political
correspondences of the increasing intra class segmentation are discussed through the
processes of deindustrialization and gentrification. Gentrification, which became a current
issue in urban centers since 1990, created a new economic search in urban spaces that were
emptied and regressed after deindustrialization. The current increase in economic value in city
centers gave way to a class based evacuation and created an “exclusive” perspective, which is
directed against the working class history in the cities and in general to the states of poverty.
As a result, the disfavor of the working classes and a “vicious” new middle class discourse
made the urban imagination of the urban elites, which only aim to increase their economic
wealth, dominant in public.

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URBANISATION IN THE INDUSTRIALIZED WORLD

 

            URBANISATION IN THE INDUSTRIALIZED WORLD

Western and Eastern Europe and Japan

The study of urbanization was conjectured easily for many years, but in recent years there have been some changes in both Western and Eastern Europe and with this changes  we could see some similar experiences with United States. With the high technology,  manufacturing employment destroyed and the services grew in both United States and Europe. Because of the income distribution problem and also legal and illegal immigration problem uneven developments appeared.

Western Europe

All the Western Europe have been urbanized for centuries. They had well developments and city populations were well, too. This region versed the improvement of population and economic evolution  just like U.S. Many central cities leaned and there was a marked which want an increase in the rate of suburbanization beside this many new towns had an ocular growth. Some countries tried not to administrate population from large urban centers, the others experienced everlasting central city growth. With the samples of U.S. case, global economical changes effected the restructuring of the space. Manufacturing inclined mostly in U.K. and less in other European countries. Cities elevated their labor forces and transform to service economies. High technology corridors appeared and this brought in new sources of employments. Industrial restructuring came to conclusion with an  inclining of urban cores and little unemployment. Many large companies become supranational   and direct the activities to the  third  world nations.

Great Britain

Deindustrialization was certain in U.K. All other countries made some changes like factory shutdowns and wholesale job losses. Britain tended from manufacturing to the service industries. At first London lost many jobs in manufacturing then it gained of new jobs in the expanding service sector. At first 25 years net gains in employment outstripped net losses. Then London become the global center of financial activities. New manufacture centers appeared and they were attached with high tech development. In Cambridge, the government interlocked with private venture capital and with the university built a new science park. New employment bases have not been able to counterbalance for job loss came with deindustrialization.  The need an absolute change had provided by tory government. The conservatives banished the British welfare state with increased privatization  and detraction in publicly supported benefits.  Public financing to market  based  services had not appeared in either great or the U.S.  To avoid the massive debt financing of the economy nationalized companies enable the conservative regimes. The abjection of working class increased because of the privatization. In U.K. crime and civil unrest had increased. After years of successful redistributive politics Britain generated a population of ghettoized poor. Now England is facing ‘’ spectre of an increasing number of households’’

Italy

For a long time Italy remained in underdeveloped regions of western Europe because of the uneven development of its regions. The north part of region was highly industrialized and the south part was rural and depend on agriculture. Economic restructuring effected rest of the industrialized west and it changed the sociospatial  model of the development. In southern region companies assumed custom design and flexible industrial methods. Northern region handled with incline especially in automobile industry. Automation presented and turned over to robotics. Migration pattern were balanced with the success of Italian industry. The fate of cities appertained  to their ability of impact and dispose of mobile capital investment. The Italian industry tended toward experts instead of the large domestic market.

France

The  metaplasia  of  France began with industrialized incline like England.  At the first one year most of industrial jobs were lost. For a period of time France government looked for intervene and support failing industries to protect the community quality of life. But these policies were not very successful. As a result of industrial decline social crisis appeared on many working-class families. First, the French government was not interested in to prop up the economic related industries , software companies and biotechnology but the high technology industries’ push influenced the higher education in the country. And today modernized, flexible and high tech economy reach to success.

Germany

The restructuring in Germany was the most famous spatial change in western which called south/north cleavage. And this change had similarities with  economic changes of U.S.  Northern cities were  affected in a bad way by restructuring. It couldn’t has a change in world system however the southern part was effected in a good way. In southern part there was automobile industries and also high technology based manufacturing. in Germany the cities formed by sectors. the economic sectors in northern southern cities differ from each other and the rate of employment changes in these cities due to these sectors. Germany was experienced difficulty to accept the formerly east German labor force because of that reason racism and unemployment occurred. Hate crimes and violence applied to the immigrants. Most of the Germans thought that  their economy can absorb the East German population in future but it is unpredictable that global recession remains in its effects.

Spain

Spain was not  so industrialized  country because of the most of it’s population engaged in agriculture. Over years most of it’s manufacturing centered in Madrid region. Urbanization was not developed and balanced. Spain industries become successful under the direction of socialist government. Global recession affected Spain very hard and as a result of that there occur a slowdown in the sociospatial of restructuring metropolitan areas. In sum, western European countries faced with economic restructuring. High technology corridors appeared  and finaly there was a big complementation of large companies or transitional companies. On the other hand, restructuring bring some problems such as; crime, poverty, racism and the declining the quality of life. However, Europe experience one kind of social dumping. To illustrate, lots of third world workers go to improved societies to find a work. Lots Turks, Kurds and Greeks migrate to Germany to find a good job and have high living standart. Global economic restructuring caused a flow not only capital investment but also of people. There were so many people came here and changed the social order. So the contemporary western Europe’s characteristics formed with this relation between first and the third world countries.

Eastern Europe

Eastern Europe was  first a communist domination but now it joined the capitalist west. Communist societies styles of building environments were similar to those in capitalist countries. Actually,  there were main separations between capitalism and communism especially at the land uses and population distributions which was different from the west. These contain the nature of central city, the pattern of population distribution and the housing shortage and an absence of a capitalist real estate market.

Central City Decline

The countries had bigger and larger central cities. Central sectors was so old. The original buildings were not torn down under communist governments. in most countries, the state directs investment instead finance capital sector. The downtowns needed real estate markets for the needs of finance capital.

The Demographic Pattern of Land Use

In eastern European cities there was family income differences not like as in U.S. In U.S.  cities had u-shaped curve separation which high class was highly separated and the poor class was little segregated. Communist and capitalist governments main difference in this point was  supplying the houses for poor ones. With the fall of communism segregate was increasing but the housing subsides was decreasing.

Housing Shortage

Unlike the communist societies’ cities there was not a housing storage in western Europe. There was market experience not like capitalist west. Under communism, land use is roughly controlled and that is why there are not any shantytowns. The urban economy grew with communism. New industry located on outsides because of the lack of space and absence of renewal. And this was a characteristic of the western capitalism.

The Emergence of Free Markets

Eastern Europe could be considered as the host of social changes as the changeover is made from communism to market economy. Moreover, the most important change was related to growth of a free real estate market and second circuit of capital for communist countries.

Japan

Japan which had large cities for hundred of yeas was one of the world ‘s greatest powers. Japan is a country that has huge cities with high dense of population like Tokyo and Osaka. These cities grow as the centers of trade. In Japan, manufacturing has a big importance for the economy. In addition city centers still have working places and this creates a dense transportation between the city center and the suburban area. So that housing prizes and rental prizes are very high due to the free market in real estate In Japanese cities, there emerges social segregation. Because wealthy are isolated from the rest. They came across uneven development with relation to lack of facilities and services. Japan has some characteristic just like the industrialized west. Urbanization and suburbanization don’t improve much in Japan. Because of this  the people must learn to live in hard conditions.