The Baroque dualities:

The Renaissance and the Mannerist theories developed many new ideas about the art, nature, epistemology and education and produced a new conception of cosmos that had many defectiveness. The theorist of the Baroque abandoned the Greek’s organic analogy of cosmos and supported a new mechanistic idea, however, Baroque needed to satisfy extreme lacks between mind and world, reason and sense, determinism and freedom, and the internal and external sources of the form. The epistemologists studied their ideas regarding the Rational and Empirical approach, however, the ideas leaded us to unexpected and undesirable conclusions. These dualities are also reflected in art and the struggle to reconcile the inner and outer sources of art.

Rationalism and the priority of reason

The Rationalist tradition in the Baroque enriched the period emphasizing on the clear reason and it trusted the rational structure of the nature. Galileo suggested that the objects in the world consist of both objective primary properties that are real and also geometrical, and also subjective secondary properties. As there is a similarity between system of geometry and the objective properties of the bodies in the physical world Galileo claimed that to understand the physical world one should firstly manipulate the geometrical system. Moreover, as the geometry is based on deduction that the theorems of it deduced from self-evident axioms, then the science itself also should be deductive. Galileo also mentioned that people who learned the mathematical language of universe would know definitions of some natural laws. Subsequent natural scientists favored this deductive method instead of the inductive method of Empiricists.

Continental Rationalism

Descartes’ Rationalist successors, Spinoza and Leibniz claimed that reliable knowledge of the world must be found in the reasoning mind. Spinoza, however, rejected the limited use of senses to provide knowledge. According to him, rational things must be real and hence the things can be thought and the things can be shown to be rational must exist even if they are never been sensed. In other words, Spinoza considered the knowledge about the outside of the world as a purely matter of deductive logic. In his parallelistic system, if an effect occurs in the physical world, it affects ultimate reality. He also suggested that changes in the physical world correspond to the changes in mind. On the other hand, Leibniz regarding the parallelism theory, reduced world to mind suggesting physical matter includes many infinitely small, self-contained forces that he called monads which can constitute an individual body are unable to change the monads constitutes the mind of vice versa. The Continental Rationalists chased the idea of innate, rational ideas to its logical conclusion, and reached little reliable knowledge of the outside world.