In 14th and 15th century, Italian humanists ignored the medieval view and revived the philosophy, art and architecture of the ancient world. Scholastic philosophy had started a revival of some important terms which was called ‘rebirth’ in the ancient Classical world. Moreover, there were two important characteristics in Greek thought:

  • The preoccupation with the secular, not divine,
  • The self-conscious awareness of the human and humans’ power.

In the early Renaissance art, there were so essential artists for the revelation term. Giotto and Pisano, Pietro from Lorenzetti brothers, Ambrogio and Piero della Francesca are the examples of early Renaissance’s artists. Moreover in the high Renaissance period, Leonardo the Vinci is the most important artist.

Cassirer’s phrase for Renaissance’s effect is ‘gaining or developing the self- conscious awareness of consciousness’. In early education, in church schools ‘facts/ realities’ subjects interested, however in the new education with the effects of Renaissance, a new and more modern feature would be appeared. In Renaissance, people began to believe his own abilities and powers to develop his personal abilities.

The philosophers criticized a problem; how could explain the interactions between mind, world and the ancient precedents. To solve this problem, they found an answer and looked to the epistemology.

Changes appeared not only in art but also in philosophy, especially Scholastic philosophy. William of Oacham is an important scholastic philosopher who attempted to rid philosophy of the Neoplatonic flavour that had lingered on from the Middle Ages.

In the middle of the 15th century, in Panofsky’s explanation, the art in Renaissance had a vital difference from the Middle Ages; this period, the object which existed in the artists’ imagination removed to the out world.

In the later periods of the Renaissance and the age of Mannerism, there occurred a new conception by the natural philosophers: Subsequent Western thinking.

There was an attractive similarity in Greeks’ and Renaissance humanists in terms of understanding the world. Both in two attitudes, a physical body, an animating soul and an organizing mind could be included.

The idea of Neoplatonists that argued the Aristotelian thinking in terms of natural growth could be thought as the revival of Platonism at the end of the 16th century.

The first serious attack on the organic analogy came from Nicholas Copernicus who removed the heterogeneous substances of the organic analogy and replaced it with the homogeneous substances.

Another attack came from John Kepler who elaborated an attack with his three laws of planetary motion at the beginning of the 17th century. He offered a new analogy of the universe as a clock which could be described with geometry and arithmetic.

Galileo Galilei, in comparison to Kepler, claimed that there were two kinds of entities in the universe:

  • The objective primary qualities of size, shape, weight and position,
  • The subjective secondary qualities of color, taste, smell.

With Galileo, the organic analogy was finally demolished and the universe had become regular, orderly clockwork which had been designed and deterministically governed by its own logic and structure.



  • M. Gelrnter – Sources of Architectural Form pp: 92-97, 116-119
  • B. Russell – A History of Western Philosophy pp: 479-675