THE TWENTIETH CENTURY
The Reaction to Relativism in Philosophy:
For the first thing, the philosophers of 19th century fight with the consequences of the Enlightenment which supports the idea of rejecting the certain knowledge of the world. Like, Nietzsche and Kierkegaard, some of the philosophers consider relativism as an unavoidable reality. On the other hand some philosophers like Hegel battle on to find the other means by which definiteness in knowledge can be obtained. Additionally, in the 20th century philosophy fights with the similar problems and requested same answers.
What is more, Dewey thinks that there is no absolute knowledge in the world, on the other hand, compare to Dewey, other philosophers in the 20th century are neurotic. They desire to limit the bad effects of relativism in the way of finding secure foundations for objective knowledge and all them agree to Kant’s thesis which supports knowledge of the world is constructed by the mind.
In addition to these philosophers, North Whitehead chases a more rationalist view for objective truths. To him; there exists a world that is objectively real. Additionally, he maintains logical patterns that are deduced in the mind should be tested against empirical observations.
Brentano recommends placing Empiricism on firmer and consciousness does not construct knowledge of the outside world. Husserl accepts this method by which certain, mistakable truths in the consciousness can be trustable apprehended. He also persists to report without prejudice on the objective phenomena, that he names essences, with consciousness. Addition to these for the last thing although Husserl denies that he is a solipsist and even developed a theory of intersubjectivity to indicate that other minds exist and they share the similar universal essences, the fact that he places exact knowledge of the world completely in the subjective mind still leaves open the possibility that each mind creates its own reality.
Sources: Mark Gelernter, Sources of Architectural Forms, 1995, pg: 220-225, Manchester University Press.