– How does the discovery in the public domain? How to create this with using of which tools?
Discovery depends on variety and change. Also discovery involve progeammes of animation for example; lunch time, concerts, art exhibition, socity events and trade promotions. In addition to this discovery needs unexpredictability and it should be break down expected so if we cant so increase a public place discovery so should make the people suprising . Because of that some tools might be use for discovery such as festivals, promotions, lighting…

Mechanical time


What are the affects of mechanical time about city which dictated by nature?

Mechanical time , people life and cities are connected to each other because of that if one of them is changed others change, too. I mean , cities are build fo human needs so when the human needs changed cities changes ,too. For example, before the 19 centry there is no car beacuse of that the roads more narrow and there is no sidewalks so we clearly see that mechanical time affects the cities. One more example, The design of the cafe, bar is change to season to season. It is different in winter and summer. Also mechanical time affects the people activities in cities so it reverberates to city directly

City branding


City branding
Branding is an proces that makes it possible to sell a product to new customers, and also still can be sold to old customers and cities are use this for same aim. So city brandind is an proces that makes it possible to sell a city (or city products) to new customers, and also still can be sold to old customers (e.g. old inhabitants, investors, city-product buyers), too.
In order for a city to be a good brand, it must possess defining and distinctive characteristics that can be readily identified. These are functional as well as non-functional qualities. These include city appearance, people’s experience ofthe city, people’s belief in the city, what the city stands for, and what kind ofpeople inhabit the city.
City branding is understood as the means both for achieving competitive advantage in order to increase inward investments and tourism, and also for achieving community development, reinforcing local identity and identification of the citizens with their city and activating all social forces to avoid social exclusion and unrest» (Kavaratzis, 2004).
Causes of the complexity of city branding:
Most of the authors admit the fact that city branding is a very intricate issue. We are going to see what are the arguments that stress this statement. The uniqueness of a city brand lies primarily in its form as a network rather than an organisation with clear boundaries and internal structures
Also the political dimension is a hurdle to the strategic branding of cities. The political process restrains the efficiency of the strategic decision-making because of the man-making of the politician and the concern about their self interests : visible project for a good reputation, personal ambition.
What are the risks of city banding?
The problem with brands in general is that it elevates the product about itself and gives them more importance that they have. Secondly, The aim of the brand is to give a coherence to something which doesn’t have one normally. The risks with applying this technique to a city is that the city can become subject to « rationalization, ‘cleansing’ and the creation of clichés.» (Mommaas (2002)) Therefore, The city brand emphasises the social inequality because of the economic-oriented dimension and recommends an orientation more social in order to raise the civic pride.

Third place checklist


  • Third place checklist;

Third places have some characteristics. These are:
 It should exist on neutral ground,
 It should serve to participants to a condition of social equality,
 conversation should be the primary activity,
 It should have a low profile,
 It should normally be open even in the off hours,
 It should determine the most of all by its regular clientele,
 It should mark by a playful mood,
 It should be radically different from the home but comfortable as a home on the psychological level.


POD development


Pod developments

Each urban uses such as shopping, education, housing and all urban land uses ,are spareted from each other. Pod development is characteristic form of out-of-centre complexes and edge cities. One of advantages of typical suburban pod developments is separated land uses and hierarchical street networks. In residential areas, generally, cul-de-sacs were used and a lighter traffic load is created.However, each uses are far form each other because of that the transportation based on driving and so many connection needed.

For example; the capüs areas would be an exapmle for pod development or new designed cirties such as Toki has built apartments and houses different part of the city. Also today we see that in cities the city center dont inlude the housing it has apartment or trade buildings and some clusters are in a different part of the cities.
Sources: Carmona (2003) Public Places Urban Spaces, Chpt 4. MorphologicalDimension, pp.61-86


Micro Public Places

– Micro Public Places
Micro Public Places are a response to this 21st century condition. Micro Public Places are formulated as mini institutions at the intersections of public interests.
Micro Public Space Shows Atelier Bow-Wow’s way of thinking about the space, space, a concept influenced by Henri Lefebvre that discusses ‘a space is produced neither by architects nor by city planners, nor by the users who live in space: space is not consumer-generated but space-generated’, therefore, ‘it is not people who creates space, but social spaces that use people to bring themselves into being’ (Atelier Bow-Wow(2010). “Behaviorology”, p.251. Rizzoli International Publications, Incorporated)
Public Space is an attempt to take even smallest space or object that is officially public and to add add individual layer to it as making use of the space.