City and Suburban Governments


If we take the America as an example of local politics, the urban goverments had been quite powerful until 1950s. That’s because the power under federal republic shared between the states and the federal goverment and the city goverments’s authorization was given by the states they are located.

This implementation was started in 1800s when the the cities were began to grow, they needed goods and services such as infrastructure, utilities etc. So, the different level of goverments commonly decided that task of providing the infrasutractural things were given to the local goverments. Besides they were given limited power to taxation. For these, the states were divided into municipal corporations.


The Machine


Machine was a system which is controlling the city hall by political groups. The examples of these are visible and Boss Pendergast is one of the famous of them. However, machine is the mode of administration not a social change or political ideology. This means that although machine didn’t stand for anithing, it ran on the democratic party line as it was supported by voters.


Progressive Reforms


After the destruction of the machine system, business policies shifted to corrupt regimes. So when the corruption was happened, most bosses began to capturing a single ward. And after the corruption, the structure of local goverments was changed and it is known as the progressivism. Progressive reform means that changing the structure of the municipal goverment apparatus of citizen representation. Spesifically, it bases on how citizen are represented.