THE MIDDLE AGES
shift from the secular to the divine
By the end of Roman Empire, the secularism affected ancient Greek cosmology, epistemology and art. They began to lose their effects. This event was occurred because of many reasons like frightening of barbaric raids or less controls of empire. People started to turn for comfort and they believed to be all-knowing all- powerful and all good. According to many of them, god lived in otherworld as pure and beautiful. This change exerted an effect on philosophy art and architecture theory.
The Neoplatonic School of philosophy changed the mean of Plato’s philosophy for developing more equal version with the new mystical spirit. According to Plato’s theory, transcendental world of pure forms cannot be seen in senses and phenomenal world of physical senses can be seen by the senses.
This new concept is understandable. True reality is not complicated. However Plato where he had given access to the transcendental realm through rational thinking, neo-Platonists trusted the power of reason. They needed to find another route to the transcendental realm.
For Plato, the unique source of philosophy is the One that is beyond all conception and knowledge. One occurred nous, nous occurred soul which is mean human soul and soul created physical world which includes human body.
This movement works in two ways, one of them is these levels of reality emanate from, and then return to the one. According to the Plato, they return to the one in two ways; reincarnation and mystical intuition.
For explaining mystical intuition, Plato developed a new knowledge which would affect many post-medieval theorists; however they would not have agreed that cosmological system was not based on it. Because the natural world and man are weak copying of the divine one from which they derive, they have a within themselves a piece or an echo of the divine. So if one thinks either of these with night meditative frame of mind one will finally discover the essential character of the one.
Plato assumed that art only imperfectly copies of nature, which in turn only imperfectly copies the ideal forms.
Early Christian philosophy
At the same with borning Neo-Platonism, there were some studies consequently it was occurred called Christian church. At first glance it was looked like an informal sect, after it dominated the other sects. It became the Roman empires sect with its features that it was well-organized and self-assured. It occurred the orthodoxy by accusation the other religions.
Christian cosmology can be seen as a logical development of Neo-Platonism. Christianity was focused on the physical world and the god like the other earliest thinking. It was not interested in real life and its interest was mostly about eternity and it provided some concepts about it. Christianity described eternity and life differently. They showed the god as an intelligent spirit which was influenced all over the world. These concepts occurred diminished forms however it had been strong in the source of it, one. Everything in universe was active because of universal force like the view of ancient Greek organic analogy. People know how to direct the world’s principles because this organization is the part of human being. For example, people can influence what influences them. God created the world and directed with rules. According the organic analogy, Christianity created a temporary analog for creator and created. Knowledge of ultimate reality and self fate completely depended on them and the god which was out of their worlds.
When people understood ultimate reality came from universe’s itself and rules understandable by people, they began to trust their understandable power. In the ancient times, it was posited that people did not have enough power as understanding universe. Knowledge that used and known by people was gave with the help of god. Ancient people studied physical world, their knowledge and truth for knowing universal truth. Medieval people benefited from doctrines to examine truth. Problem of ancient epistemology that how people know the truth disappeared.
Religious interests and physical nature disappeared completely. Although in the ancient cultures it was believed that god and fate could be controlled, in the middle age it was understood that there was nothing to control the god.