The city can be seen not only so attractive but also problematical like problems the migration, the crowds of children, the health plagues, alcoholism, the family violence, street -gangs, crime educational problems, race, poverty, racial segregation and government expenditures on education are the main problems.

To solve the problems in city; some theories have been developed by sociologists:

  1. ‘Wirthian Theory’: which has been developed by Louis Wirth, consists of the comparison between urban and rural areas in terms of city life which is based on the social relationships.
  2. ‘Compositional Approach’: developed by Hebert Gans connects the urban problems to the demographic characteristics of the population.
  3. ‘Substructural View’ developed by Claude Fischer includes the effect of behavior on the city life.
  4.  ‘Sociospatial Approach’, lifestyles result from social factors such as race, class and gender.

When we talk about the problem types in the urban areas; first one is racism. It was effected to especially African Americans. In 1970’s in some American cities likeDetroit,Michigan,Chicago,Buffalo,New YorkandOhio, percentages of black population was %30.

There are many kinds of study subjects that have been made for the metropolitan problems: The study of the using methods of the rental and real estate agents to prevent blacks from white- owned areas, the study of the segregation statistics between 1980’s and 1990’s of Harrison& Weinberg, the study of the black employment rate, the study of the crime rates in U.S. in 1990’s, the study of the suburban crimes, the study of the city spending by neighborhood uncovered spatial inequities.

When we talk about poverty rate; it is the result of the uneven development. In 1980’s, manufacturing provided professional workers in the sectors of the banking, processing, food, tourism and delivery system. The poverty causes the crime and drug usage, it is resulted by health problems. Because of the inadequate health problems and limited job opportunities, especially in the black people’s areas, the racial segregation increased sharply. In sum, the urban problem of the ghetto poor is a product of the socio-spatial effects of racism and economic changes because of the restructuring of the global economy and the decline of manufacturing.

Finally as another problem, because of homelessness; economic crisis, mental illness, poverty, failure and the housing policies can be seen.


  • Urban Sociology – William G. Flanagan
  • The New Urban Sociology – Mark Gottdiener