Third World Urbanization

Third World Urbanization

 

To begin with, althoughAmericais a country that is well-developed there are also some problems like unemployment or educational problems occurring. On the other hand, inequality causes some similar problems in Asia, Africa andLatin America.

 

Chancing Perspectives on the Third World Urbanization:

To compare the development processes ofAmericaand third world countries, whileAmericais being improved in an industrial way, the third world countries are being developed primitively. For example,New Delhiand Sao Paolo are some examples of this development. These types of cities are developing with just industrialization and this cause uneven development.

What is more, ecological and sociospatial theories are approaching this topic in different ways. For example, to ecological approach, developing countries are chasing well-developed countries. However, to sociospatial approach urbanization in developed countries based on the capital investments.

Lastly, third world countries have sources that are used byAmerica. This is called “Fordism”. This concept disappears in 1970s. Many workers who are American are shifted to these countries. As a result,Americasupplies lots of needs with the help of these countries.

 

Demography and Third World Urbanization:

 

For the first thing, the factors such as, migration, birth rate and death rate are the natural effects that chance the population. In developed countries there is a remaining increase. Because after world War 2 health techniques are improved and in this way the death rate is decreased. However, while doing this the birth rate does not chance. On the other hand, this population change occurs in third world countries because in these countries the birth rate is higher than the death rate. This rate difference causes some problems such as, homelessness, unemployment and food problem. The other result of population increase is colonialism. The powerful countries control the third world ones and use the sources of them.

 

Primate City Development Process:

 

To start with, primate cities are the biggest cities at least three times the second biggest. The population of these cities is based on immigration. In addition to that, to sociospatial approach, growing of primate cities has nothing to do with poor countries. The urbanization is not the consequence of a better quality of life but the result of global capitalism. However, to ecological approach, primate cities can help the poor ones. If these poor ones can reach them, they can have a better quality of life.

 

Shantytown Development:

 

Firstly, it can be said that there is a good economy in shantytowns. Because there are many workers live in these places. Nevertheless, these shantytowns are a threat for the government.

What is more, for the third world countries shantytowns are good places for little plants. Especially, in recent years the companies in shantytowns supply people to communicate with other companies. As a result of this, the possibility of having a job increases. Shantytowns are also the suitable places for workers to find a house. With the help of this, economy gets into action because of house need.

 

The Informal Economy and Coping Strategies:

 

For the sociospatial approach, society is got together of groups and individuals. However, third world countries are not only combined with these classes but also with households. Relatively, household is combined of home or sharing foods. However, there are some differents between these people.

To illustrate, poor people are trying to find a way to help people related and near them. However, there are both negative and positive dimensions of that. To get over this, they produce food. Even some time people appeal to illegal ways to get money.

Briefly, market economy has a result informal economy. The jobs related to this economy are not safe but increasing around the world without stopping.

 

Urban Social Movements and Politics:

 

To begin with, due to increasing in the number of shantytowns and uneven development people do not trust the government anymore. Social movements support them to deal with effects of politics. Relatively, these movements also affect the global economy. For example, in third world countries, workers are formed of different classes. Lastly, on the other hand, the global economy affects the social movements, too. To illustrate, third world countries are controlled by this global economy.

 

 

Sources: Mark Gottdiener, The New Urban Sociology, 1994, pg: 249–270, McGraw-Hill Inc.

 

 

 

THE DRAMA of LOCAL POLITICS

THE DRAMA of LOCAL POLITICS

Empowerment: Ethnic and Racial Changes:

 

For the first thing, local politics is mostly characterized by the economic elites, however it has also dramatic dimension which includes struggle, conflict and coalition building and etc… Additionally, the backgrounds of local politicians are mostly identified immigrant originated. In later times, Irish, Jews and Italian become adept of political control. In addition to this change in empowerment, most recently the population of central cities changes. For example, minority groups become majorities. For the last thing, these changes contain a struggle for political control domination where the main effect is voting power.

 

Social Movement:

 

To begin with, social movements include an organization created by the individuals for making an impress on local government. In other words, in the time the constituencies have defined demands, they encounter to make demands on local government for structural change (Castells, 1983) these movements are mobilized around the issues of welfare rights in the past. For example, these social movements can point the basic issues like rent control. To illustrate that “poor people’s movement” (Pivan and Cloward, 1977) is an organization that supports the parts working class against the local government. Lastly, this is also an example of the main characteristics of social movement because the demanded change is directed to local government instead the business community.

Suburban Social Movements:

 

Firstly, suburbs are the other places where the social movements also occur. The needs are demanded in suburbs for the common case of neighborhood organization for; traffic control, development controls and tax revolts.

In the cases considered as the struggle for the traffic controls, the residents mostly need for example, stop signs or traffic lights or something like these… and they demand these from the city hall.

There is another case named growth control movements. This is an issue that mobilized suburbian residents across subdivisions are that of “growth control”. In other words, the larger the suburban area is the more problems occur due to the needs of traffic, pollution, crowdedness and so on. This uncontrolled growth affects the quality of the first-settled people’s life in a bad way that they have difficulties to satisfy the needs. As a result of this growth control organization, there occurs a restructuring of land use that is named “up-zoning”. For the last thing, despite the reducing growth pressures, many communities prefer this growth controls.

Last is case is tax revolts that is related to the demands of homeowners for tax relief. This something affects both the local suburban jurisdictions but also the majority of residents who are regardless of class.

In brief, not only in cities but also in suburbs, local politics are responsible for supplying to people a life that has a quality and a tax that is limited. Otherwise, social movements spring up for seeking reforms and charged for having the quality of life and limited taxations. For the last thing, the class movements can be considered as the consequences of the uneven development because the quality of life is something the result of it.

The Declining Power of Local Politics:

 

To begin with, there is a reducing power of local politics because both the city and suburban bring with it exact benefits from control over public decisions. Thus, there is a kind of tendency for citizens to be involved in local politics. Especially, in recent forty years, there is a decline of city politics and this issue has three main points of view.

What is first is a rough limitation of the participation in local elections. In spite of the fact that, the community life is characterized by the involvement of citizens highly in voting, the participations of citizens reduce.

Another limitation pf local politics is that the metropolitan regions are excessively fragmented. To illustrate, “Chicagohas a chaotic array of over 1,000 separate public service districts.” This causes a series of problems in coordination of service delivery. Additionally, this fragmentation of metropolitan region makes regional planning almost impossible.

The last limitation of local politics is the ideology of privatism and there are some problems with this limitation. Firstly, due to the dominancy of privatization social issues like education and welfare are neglected because, economic concerns are more important than these issues according to the ideology of privatism. The other problem is that privatization is just supporting the downtown business and the rest is again neglected. Last problem with this ideology is related to the reduction of the power of local politics because it removes not only the goals but also the operation of government from both public accountability and the political process.

In short, the quality of politics decline and communities don’t participate in urban policies. Namely, the more the crises of political process occur, the more severe condition in the quality of life in both cities and suburbs emerge.

Source: Mark Gottdiener, The New Urban Sociology, 1994, pg: 235-247, McGraw-Hill Inc.

 

 

CONTEMPORARY URBAN SOCIOLOGY

    CONTEMPORARY URBAN SOCIOLOGY

   THE SOCIOSPATIAL APPROACH   

 

The Revival of Urban Political Economy: Henry Lefebre

 

  In the late 1960s and early 1970s the Marxian traditions was used again in social science.Especially France was affected urban analysis by Henri Lefebvre.He is no question  the seminal source of  new thinking on the city from a critical and Marxian view for broken down into four areas.

1)      He investigated Marx and Engel’s writings about urban political economy.He explained that how it was possible to use economic categories such as profit,rent,wages,capital investment and uneven development in the analysis of cities.He disputed that the city development process was a product of the capitalist system.

2)      He told the idea of the tours of capital and the idea that real estate is a separate tour of capital.He called all industrial activity the ‘primary circuit of capital’.This type was created much of riches in a capital society.There was a ‘second circuit of capital’ real estate investment for Lefebvre.He disputed that money is to be  made real estate although there is a decreasing in all economic sectors at present.

3)      He told the idea that the real estate is a special case of the dynamics of  settlement space.All social activities are about space as well.Social activities take part of space.They produce space by creating objects.

4)      Finally,he interested in the role of government in space.Space is used for social controls by the state.The government dispenses resources and collects taxes.It decides  and relays  to individuals across the network of administrative units.

According to Lefebvre, social activities create spaces. People create places for their needs and there are different kinds of people so that there are different places.

Class conflict theories

 

  For David Gordon, capitalists choose about factory is not only about economical needs but also wanting workers be far away from union organization areas. Factory owners build factories in place where workers are not militant as they are in cities. To control the labor conflict, owners build factories distance places. As a consequence of this there is a suburbanization factory that causes multicentered cities.

Michael Storper and David Walker expanded Gordon’s idea. They claimed that labor force consideration is a variable thing. They did a theory called labor theory of location this theory claims that commodity and labor is unique that they not only depend on physical quality but also depend on workers education and interest for being a part of organization.

Consequently, according to class conflict approach, every nation has variable areas of their quality. This is affected by education and traditional effects. As a consequence, several cultural conditions are important for creating well-behaved labor consideration.

These theorists failed because they expressed everything regarding with economic factors. But technological factors affect class conflict, too.

According to Manual Castell, professional countries have developing welfare level. This means that government provides for all people supporting programs such as unemployment insurance. These programs are controlled by government. “Struggles for resources by residents of the city, therefore, often took the form of conflicts aimed at local government, rather than the capitalist class” (The new urban sociology, M. Gottdiener 1994 p: 131)

 

Class accumulation theories

 

Class conflict theories are described as a disagreement between capitalist factory owners and workers sell their labor for a wage.

David Harvey thinks that class conflict occurs because of facing of worker and owner. Working group divides into another part and owners groups too.

According to him government intervened then plan works so that capitalists get profits back. For this reason capitalists want government to intervened and help for profit making process. In primary circuit of capital, owners are interested in areas and cost of production. On the other hand in secondary circuit of capital, they are interested in flow of investment and properties’ rents.

According to Scott, real estate, political development, pull factor are not related with production process. He explains changed in the form of cities. Scott’s approaches are helpful that relation between global economy and location of business is understandable.

Recent sociological approaches

 

  The growth machine: according to Molotch, cities are growth machine. Government is responsible for growth and developments. Entering more people to urban area means more services. Government provides services with resources. They create resources with tax of property so that they provide services for people, maintain the quality of life.

  The Sociospatial perspective:  it considers real estate development as the leading edge of changes in the metropolitan region. Different from other approaches, it focused on real estate. It considers government intervention and the interest of politicians as a principal factor in metropolitan chance. For understanding the metropolitan life Sociospatial perspective examines the tendency of society. It claimed that other perspectives ignore the importance of real estates for understanding the process of regional development. For understanding the city growth, pull and push factors must be examined. Consequences of studies it can be understood that development of metropolitan region is not only dependent on push factors, class conflicts or capital accumulation. Development is caused by the pull factors of people’s activities involved in secondary circuit of capital, real estate. It is composed of owners wanting wealth from real estate and structure that channels money into the built environment. Second means that people invest their money to land. Secondary circuit of capital consists of intersection between structure and agency.

Developers meet with government planners to build environment. They construct structures with the interests.