Third World Urbanization
America is a well-developed country. It has many industrial and cultural cities. It has a stable population growth. Generally cities grow through the surround of big cities. On the other hand there are some problems in America such as employment, medical and educational problems. Despite the problem of employment, most of American people have job even some of them get career.
In Asia, Africa and Latin America, there are many problems because of inequality. These continents have the three-fourth of world’s population and they have valuable lands. But these continents are controlled by totalitarian dictatorships therefore there are many problems.
Chancing Perspectives on the Third World Urbanization:
To compare the development processes of America and third world countries, while America is being improved in an industrial way, the third world countries are being developed primitively. For example, New Delhi and Sao Paolo are some examples of this development. These types of cities are developing with just industrialization and this cause uneven development.
According to ecological theories, developing countries follow the developed countries. But sociospatial view is against this theory. According to sociospatial approach, to understand urbanization in developing countries, role of economical changing on classes, capital investment is important factor. Therefore countries which have different economical method develop in different ways.
Especially by the 1970s there were distinct differences between first and third world economies. United States was influenced by Fordism and less developed countries were sources and market places during that time. After the time 1970s in the United States many changes happened as demolising the Fordism and emerging of deindustrialization.
Besides, manufacturing employment was spreading over many countries. By 1990s for consumers it became easy to find whatever they want to purchase in the United States. Thus, manufacturing was established over many areas of the third world.
Some of the third world urbanization studies reject the influence of American superiority over world, even it is thought that the countries bound to America were willing. The effect is called internationalization of capital.
Sociospatial view isnaware ot the influence of the global system and does not accept the world system theory as a best solution. However, urbanization approach consist of global, national and local factors.
Third world cities also without noticing the features of industrialization progress to industrialized stage. Large cities experience even employment shift which at the base of its situation in the center of capital investment. As a result of adopted employment features annoying differential had emerged between well-paid and working class.
The sociospatial view tells us in third world urbanization there are differences in class structure, global linkage and differences in local politics. Also it is obvious that is different from first world urbanization in terms of population growth and change.
Demography and Third World Urbanization:
Population changes occur because of death, birth and migration. Changing of death and birth rates are named natural increases. Population change occurs with these natural increases and migration.
When developed countries are examined with regard to population, it can be seen that there were stable natural increase. After the World War 2 modern health techniques caused the decrease of death rate in third world countries. But there were explosion in population because there was no change in birth rate. Therefore population increased. In developed countries with the help of lower birth rate and small families population is stable. But in the third world countries, population is increasing because birth rate is higher than death rate.
Because of high population rate in third world countries, people are faced with many problems such as starving, homelessness and unemployment. New agricultural methods cause both natural population and migration increases. As a result of this there can be seen decreasing life quality.
Another result of population increases is colonialism. Powerful countries such as America and European countries control these third world countries. They control them so that they powerful countries can use sources.
Primate City Development Process:
Primate cities have much more population than the largest cities in the same country. Keeping on growing is the only way to exist for rural migrants.
Primate city seks for the reason of ecological theory. According to this, poor countries should be developed as soon as possible as former developed countries. As this process works, ecological theory provide increased income and a better life standart.
On the other hand there is an opposite view as sociospatial perspective. It says that rapid urbanization aims to require the needs of capital not the quality of life.Thus, uneven employment occurs in the third world countries and lack of equal income and life standarts primate cities are the outcome.
Despite the terrible vision of shantytowns, increases of population in there can be seen. Real estate investments are the cause of this event. In fact there is a powerful economy in shantytown. There are many workers live in there. For many countries, shantytowns are the threaten areas for governments. Another view to shantytowns by countries there are many services in there.
Mean of shantytowns for third world countries is a place for little plants. Recent years, widespread of companies in shantytowns has provided them to contracts with companies. Consequently, possibility of job is increased.
In addition to these shantytowns are places for workers to find house easily. Needs of houses create an economy based on house and renting.
The Informal Economy and Coping Strategies:
For the sociospatial approach, society is got together of groups and individuals. However, third world countries are not only combined with these classes but also with households. Relatively, household is combined of home or sharing foods. However, there are some differents between these people.
To illustrate, poor people are trying to find a way to help people related and near them. However, there are both negative and positive dimensions of that. To get over this, they produce food. Even some time people appeal to illegal ways to get money.
Briefly, market economy has a result informal economy. The jobs related to this economy are not safe but increasing around the world without stopping.
Urban Social Movements and Politics:
Uneven development and increasing of shantytowns lead to political instability. People do not see government as helper for people have problem. Organization between people makes them against to the government. Social movements help them to fight with influences of politics. Social movements affect global economy. Workers in third world countries comprise of different classes. As a result of social movements there are many groups which are absolutely differ from each other.
On the other hand global economy affects the social movements.IMF has an important control on third world countries. Government responds by eliminating subsidies on many consumers. Its results with protests of residents’ people